5 février 2008
Bruce Weber "What is life? Defining life in the context of emergent complexity"
Shelly (1822) "The Triumph of Life"
the last poem: "Then. What is life? I cried."
Life was problematic for Democritean philosophers, but not for Aristotelians (= living as paradigma).
For Descartes's dualism, problematic
Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins first prof of Biochem at Cambridge U
rejects naive reductionists
1913; cell as chemical machine; life is whole of cell
Debate: vitalist vs. mechanist
1930; Lancelot Hogben : mechanist
1931; JBS Haldane : vitalist
JH Woodger: living organism not life; origin of life is out of science
1944: Schrodinger "What is life?"
aperiodic crystal: order from order
biological molecules: order from disorder
1959: Oparin (Moscow meeting)
● templates for replication & for catalysts
● some mechanisms by which autonomy arises
● some mechanisms of reproduction
Darwin's public stance on origin of life: "Who cares!"
Ernst Mayr: reductionist & emergentist
Alex Rosenberg: Darwinian reductionist, emergentist （scientific facts に基づいて考え直した） new modern Darwinism
Serial assembly of perfect parts is not efficient; the importance of the whole
1993: Stuart Kauffman's model for origin of life
"Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution"
1991: Deamer's Protocell model (J Mol Evol 33:207-8)
transition from non-living to living
Rasmussen, Science 303:963, 2004
Pross, J Theor Biol 220: 393, 2003
Luisi (2006): The emergence of life; origin of life & evolution of the biosphere